Peritoneal Mesothelioma | Treatment, Diagnosis & Life Expectancy
What is Peritoneal Mesothelioma?
Nowadays, more than 2,500 people are diagnosed with Mesothelioma in the UK each year.
Mesothelioma is a tumor of mesothelioma. This is a thin lining (membrane) that’s cover the outer surface of most of our body organs. The mesothelioma has a different name in different part of the body. In the abdomen is called the peritoneum.
Mesothelioma that starts in the peritoneum is called mesothelioma.cancer of mesothelioma is a called malignant mesothelioma. However, it’s a usually referred to simply as mesothelioma.
The peritoneum has an inner & outer layer. The inner & outer layer covers the abdominal organs and outer layer lines the abdominal wall. The peritoneum helps protect the organ in the abdomen and keep them in place. When mesothelioma develops in the peritoneum that the layers of the peritoneum thicken and fluid may collect between the two layers. This is known as ascites.
What Cause Peritoneal Mesothelioma?
Asbestos exposure is the primary cause of peritoneal mesothelioma that also known as abdominal mesothelioma.
- Swallowed asbestos fibers travel from digestive systems to the peritoneum.
- Inhaled asbestos fiber travels from the lymphatic system to the peritoneum.
- Once the fiber is in the peritoneum that they irritate the cell.
- The irritated cell begins to thicken the peritoneal lining.
- Excess abdominal fluids build.
- Over time, tumors begin to form on the damaged peritoneum.
Symptoms of the Peritoneal Mesothelioma
Symptoms of peritoneal mesothelioma ranges form those associated with the location of the tumors near the abdominal cavity to symptoms that resemble other less serious condition such as flu.
Common peritoneal mesothelioma symptoms :
- Nausea or vomiting
- Unexplained weight loss
- Night sweats or fever
- A feeling of fullness
- Change in bowel habits
- Diarrhea or constipation
- Abdominal pains or swelling
Diagnosis of Peritoneal Mesothelioma
The process of diagnosis peritoneal mesothelioma is like other types of mesothelioma. It starts with a thorough examination of your medical history, occupational history &overall physical condition.A series of test, including imaging scan and biopsies.
This information will alert your doctor about the possibility of an asbestos-related disease & help them to m to determine the appropriate next steps. Vague abdominal discomfort is very nonspecific and making the history of asbestos exposure important in guiding diagnostic tests.
When a patient is experiencing symptoms then the doctor likely will ask for the chest X-ray, CT scan or another type of imaging scan. These test will detect potential tumor and show any cancer spreads.they also helps to the doctor choose the best biopsy locations.
It is most important to note that a CT scan can diagnose ascites. In the absence of liver disease that it’s externally important to pursue the causes of ascites.
Around 20-50 years pass after your first exposure to asbestos before peritoneal mesothelioma begins to develop.
Biopsies are the minor procedure that extracts fluid and tissues sample for inspection under a microscope. This is an essential step in the diagnostic processes because only a biopsy confirms a peritoneal mesothelioma diagnosis.
Sometimes the doctor needs to perform a laparoscopic Surgical biopsy that which is more invasive. In both cases that pathologists look to see if lab result shows cancerous cells in your peritoneal fluid or tissues.
Testing a biopsy sample with a chemical called antibodies is important to confirm a mesothelioma diagnosis. Antibodies used to confirm peritoneal mesothelioma includes calretinin and podoplanin.
Peritoneal Mesothelioma Staged
Imaging Scans helps doctor estimate the stage of the mesothelioma. These tumors initially form on the lining of the abdomen. As the tumors grow and spread, they migrate outside the lining to lymph nodes and distant organ.
For decades the peritoneal mesothelioma expert developed their own staging system because an official one did not exist. Since then the researchers have proposed three stages. A fourth stage is not yet clearly defined.
It’s generally accepted that patients with extensive tumor spreading are classified as stage IV
3 stages of peritoneal mesothelioma
Cancerous tissues are minimal & tumor is contained within the abdominal lining and lymph node are free of cancer.
Cancerous tissues are moderate & tumors have not spread outside the lining or to lymph nodes.
Cancerous tissue is more extensive & tumors may have spread outsides the peritoneal lining, to lymph node or both.
Treatment Option for Peritoneal Mesothelioma
Treatment for this type of mesothelioma includes surgery, chemotherapy & experimental therapies such as immunotherapy.
Surgery is the most promising traditional option for peritoneal mesothelioma in the abdomen, but it is only effective for early-stage cancer. Because the doctor most commonly diagnoses asbestos-related diseases after cancer has spreads than most surgeries only attempt to a removed section of the tumor.
Surgery can be curative or palliative. Curative surgery aims to remove as much of the tumor as possible in hope of curing cancer. Otherwise, a doctor may perform palliative surgery, which aims to removed parts of the tumor that to relieve symptoms that including bowel obstruction that extended survival and improved quality of life. Palliative therapies don’t stop cancer.
Chemotherapy drugs can shrink peritoneal mesothelioma tumors and slow the growth and spreads of cancer. It can be given before during or after surgery. In some of the cases, the doctor offers chemotherapy as the only treatment options. Chemotherapy drugs considered effective against peritoneal mesothelioma include pemetrexed, cisplatin, carboplatin, and gemcitabine.
All chemotherapy was intraperitoneal chemotherapy, meaning that it was applied only to the peritoneum.
In the appropriate patient, the main treatment will be cytoreductive surgery with HIPEC. The surgical part removes all gross tumors with residual deposits smaller than 2 mm. The HIPEC treats the residual tumor and microscope cancer cells the surgeon cannot see.
Some studies show radiation therapy that can improve peritoneal mesothelioma survival slightly when combined with surgery & chemotherapy. However, the doctor tends not to be recommended radiation for these patients.
Even though targeted radiation can shrink the tumor and slow cancer growth that the procedure is risky because of the location of these tumors. The peritoneum wraps around the stomach, liver, and intestine. Aim radiation at nearby tumors could harm of these organs and cause life-threat damage.
Prognosis for Peritoneal Mesothelioma
It depends on:-
- Treatment selected
- Genetic mutations
- Tumor grade
- Stage at diagnosis
The rate of cancer progression is highly variable in this type of mesothelioma. It’s hard to predict individual prognosis.
More than 60% of patients are diagnosed too late to qualify for surgery. The patient often elects chemotherapy. The combination of cisplatin & pemetrexed delivered systemically has a response rate around 30% with average progressions free survival around 11.5 month and median survival around 13 months.